Canadian Commercial Pilot Groundschool Manual

Table of Contents

 

LICENSING REQUIREMENTS

Completion Requirements

Examination Administration

Night Rating

VFR Over-the-Top Rating

Commercial Pilot Licence

Multi-crew Pilot Licence-Aeroplane

Instrument Rating

Multi-engine Class Rating

Seaplane Class Rating

Airline Transport Pilot Licence

Type Ratings

Pilot Personal Logs

Recency Requirements

Five-year Recency

Recurrent Training Program

Medical Certificate

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

AIRFRAMES, ENGINES AND SYSTEMS—PART I

Review

Definitions

Load and Load Factors

Normal and Utility Categories

Manoeuvring Speed and Gust Loads

Logbooks and Inspections

Certificates of Airworthiness

Non-airworthiness

Airworthiness Directives

Service Bulletins

Pilot Operating Handbooks

Maintenance Release

Elementary Work—Private Aircraft

Elementary Work and Servicing—Commercial Aircraft

QUESTIONS

Answers

 
AIRFRAMES, ENGINES AND SYSTEMS—PART II

Power

Piston Engine Types and Characteristics

Parts of an Engine

Four Strokes of an Engine

Timing

Cooling

Oil

Oil Dilution

Fuel

Pilot Mixture Contro

Fuel Systems

Special Fuel Considerations

Carburettor Icing

Superchargers and Turbochargers

Ignition

Electrical Power

Propellers

Turbine Engines

Turbofans

Turboprops

Compressor Stalls

Auxiliary Power Units

Pressurization

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

AERODYNAMICS AND THEORY OF FLIGHT

Forces of Flight

Generating Lift

Airfoils

Angle of Attack

Parasitic Drag

Induced drag

Ground Effect

Boundary Layer

Stalls

Factors that affect the Stall

Spins

Lift and Drag Concepts

Wing Design

Spoilers and Speed Brakes

Stability

Dutch Roll

Forces during Takeoff

Critical Engine

High-speed Flight

Compressibility

Transonic Flight

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

CANADIAN AVIATION REGULATIONS

Organization

Airports

Runways and Taxiways

The Circuit

Mandatory Frequency Airports

Control Zone Airports

ATC Clearances and Instructions

Airspace Classification

Northern and Southern Domestic Airspace

Class A

Class B

Class C

Class D

Class E

Class F

Class G

VHF and LF Airways

Airport Airspace

VFR Weather Minimum

Special VFR

VFR Over-the-Top

Cruising Altitudes

Altimeter Setting Rules

VFR Flight Plans

National Security

Emergency Location Transmitters (ELT)

Transponder Requirements

Fuel requirements

Alcohol

Seat Requirements

Use of Oxygen

Oxygen Equipment and Supply

Unpressurized Aircraft

Pressurized Aircraft

Aircraft Equipment Requirements

CAR 605.14 Power-driven Aircraft - Day VFR

CAR 605.15 Power-driven Aircraft - VFR OTT

CAR 605.16 Power-driven Aircraft - Night VFR

Night VFR Requirements for Commercial Operations 85

Legal Fligh

Operational and Emergency Equipment Requirements

Flight over Water

Aircraft Icing

Minimum Altitude

Speed Limits

Rules of the Air

Air Taxi Operations

Application

Distribution of Company Operations Manual

Standard Operating Procedures

Operational Flight Plan

Transport of Passengers in Single-engine Aircraft

Operations over water

Number of Passengers in Single-engine Aircraft

Carriage of External Loads

VFR Flight Obstacle Clearance Requirement

Minimum VFR Flight Visibility in Uncontrolled Airspace

VFR Flight Weather Conditions

VFR OTT Flight

Routes in Uncontrolled Airspace

Passenger and Cabin Safety Procedures (CAR 723.38)

Weight and Balance Control

Aircraft Equipment Requirements (CARs 703.64 & 69)

Flight Crewmember Qualifications (CAR 703.88)

Qualifications Validity Period

Air Taxi Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)

Commuter Operations.

Application

Distribution of Company Operations Manual

Standard Operating Procedures

Information System

Operational Flight Plan

Flight Authorization

Checklist

VFR Flight Obstacle Clearance Requirement

VFR Flight Minimum Flight Visibility—Uncontrolled Airspace

VFR Flight Weather Conditions

VFR OTT Flight

Passenger and Cabin Safety Procedures (CAR 724.33) 

Weight and Balance Control

Take-off Weight Limitations

En route Limitations with One Engine Inoperative (CAR 704.48)

Aircraft Equipment Requirements (CAR 704.62)

Protective Breathing Equipment

Hand-Held Fire Extinguisher

Minimum Crew (CAR 704.106)

Flight Crewmember Qualifications (CAR 704.108)

Qualifications Validity Period

Commuter Operations Pilot Proficiency Check (PPC)

Briefing of Passengers (Air Taxi and Commuter Operations)

Maximum Duty and Flight Times

Maximum Flight Time (CAR 700.15)

Flight Duty Time Limitations and Rest Periods (CAR 700.16)

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

FLIGHT OPERATIONS

Flight Information Services

En route Communication

Pressure and Density Altitude

Weight and Balance

Weight and Balance Requirements

Weight and Balance Procedure

Cessna 441 Weight and Balance

Weight, Balance and Performance

Shifting Weight

Mean Aerodynamic Chord

Landing Considerations

Approach Speed for Predicted Weight

Landing Rules of Thumb

Crosswind Landing Limitations

Landing Errors

Landing Illusions

Approach Slope Lights

Wake Turbulence

Wake Turbulence Guidelines

Jet Blast Hazard

Hydroplaning

Canadian Runway Friction Index (CRFI)

NOTAMs

Mid-air Collisions

Bird Strikes

Flight over Water

Winter Flight Operations

Clean Aircraft Concept

Aerodynamic Effects of Airborne Icing

Cold-soaking Phenomenon

De-icing and Anti-icing Fluids

Roll Upset

Tail Plane Stall

Whiteout

Marshalling Signals

Mountain Flying

Aviation Fuel Handling

Emergency Locator Transmitter

Medical Factors

Hypoxia

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

Decompression Sickness

Vertigo

Alcohol and Drugs

Anaesthetics

Blood Donation

Performance Graphs

Table 1—Accelerate-Stop Distances

Table 2—Cruise Power Settings—65% Power

Table 3—Normal Takeoff Distance—Flaps 20°

Table 4—Takeoff Distance—Flaps 8°

Table 5—Time, Fuel, and Distance to Climb

QUESTIONS

Answers

Solutions

 

HUMAN FACTORS AND PILOT DECISION-MAKING

Tenerife

The Pilot Decision-making Process

Situation

Options

Choose

Act

Evaluate

Loss of Situational Awareness

Stress

Hazardous Attitudes

Human Factors and Pilot Error

Accident Rates

Exposure to Accident Risk

The Accident Pilot Profile

Experience and Greatest Accident Risk

Use of Checklists

Disorientation—178 Seconds

Hypoxia

Empty-Field Myopia

Landing Errors

Crew Resource Management

Synergy

Crew Co-ordination

Targets

Excessive Professional Courtesy

Safety Window

Ambiguity

Establishing Situational Awareness

Clues to the Loss of Situational Awareness

Professional Crew Resource Management Guidelines

Principles of Good Crew Resource Management

Pilot-in-command Characteristics

Letter of Complaint

Case Study:  Pacific Southwest Airlines Boeing 727 (PSA 182), and Cessna 172, Lindbergh Field, San Diego, September 25, 1978

Case Study: Eastern Air Lines Lockheed L-1011 (Eastern 401), Miami International Airport, December 29, 1972

Case Study: United Airlines DC-8 (United 173), Portland International Airport, December 28, 1978

Case Study: Air Florida Boeing 737-200 (Palm 90), Washington National Airport, January 13, 1982

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

METEOROLOGY

The Troposphere

Air Masses

Canadian Air Masses

Continental Arctic (cA)

Maritime Arctic (mA)

Maritime Polar (mP)

Maritime Tropical (mT)

Continental Tropical (cT)

Air Mass Fronts

Air Mass Jet Streams

Standard Atmosphere

Clouds

Cloud Classification

Vertical development of cloud

Sky Opacity

Pressure

Coriolis Force

Local Phenomenon Winds

Humidity

Heating

Cooling

Stability

Fronts

Frontal Depression

The Warm Front

The Cold Front

Frontal Winds and Pressure

Other Fronts and Associated Weather

Stationary Front

Occluded Fronts

Upper Fronts

Trowals

Freezing Rain Risk

Clouds and Precipitation of Active Weather

Fog

Thunderstorms

Cumulus Stage

Mature Stage

Dissipation Stage

Thunderstorm Classifications

Frontal Thunderstorms

Squall Line Thunderstorms

Thunderstorm Hazards

Turbulence

Hail

Icing

Altimetry

Lightning

Thunderstorm Flight Procedures

Thunderstorm Wind Shear

Icing

Super-cooled Water Droplet

Icing rules of thumb

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

WEATHER INFORMATION

Aviation Weather Reports (METAR)

Type of Report

Station identification

Date and Time of Issue

Wind

Prevailing Visibility. 236

Runway Visual Range

Present Weather

Sky Opacity

Temperature, Dew Point, Altimeter Setting Pressure

Wind Shear

Remarks

Special Weather Reports (SPECI)

AWOS

Aerodrome Forecasts (TAF). 240

Change Groups: From, Becoming, Temporary, and Probability

Upper Winds (FD)

Other Reports

Weather Charts

Surface Analysis Charts

Upper Level Analysis Charts

Prognostic Charts

General GFA Format

GFA Abbreviations

GFA Weather Information—CLDS & WX GFA

Clouds

Weather and Visibility

Winds and Pressure

Dynamic Systems

GFA Weather Information— ICG/TURBC/FRLVL

Icing

Turbulence

Freezing Level Isotherms

GFA Amendments and Corrections. 264

Runway Visual Range

Airborne Weather Radar

Lightning Detectors

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

NAVIGATION

Terms and Concepts

Magnetic Compass

VFR Navigation Charts

Currency

Highest Elevation Points

Airspace and the VNC

FSS Communication

The WAC Chart

IFR Charts

Communication

Scale

Airspace

MOCA and MEA

Minimum Reception Altitude

Radio Aids, Distance and Course Data

Navigation and Communication Data Boxes

Airport Data

Changeover Points

Course Correction Method

Double Track Method

Opening-Closing Angle Method

“One-in-Sixty” Rule

ADF, VOR, and GPS Navigation Procedures

Homing and Tracking

Orientation—Paralleling the Track

Navigation Formula

Relative Bearing

Time and Distance to Station

Finding the Sun’s True Bearing

The Short-cut

QUESTIONS

Answers

 
RADIO NAVIGATION

Radio Concepts and Terms

VOR

RMI Display

ADF

Bearing Indicators and RMI

ILS

DME

Area Navigation Systems

INS

RNAV

LORAN-C

GNSS

RAIM

Radar

Primary and Secondary

En Route and Terminal Control System

Precision Approach Radar (PAR)

Airport Surface Radar

Navigation Equipment Interference

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS

Pitot-static Instruments

Airspeed Indicator

Altimeter

Vertical Speed Indicator

Malfunction of the Pitot-Static System

Gyro Instruments

Slip and Skid Indications

Turns and Turn Indications

Instrument Scanning

Control and Performance Instruments

Selective Radial Scan

Magnetic Compass

QUESTIONS

Answers

 

Index

© 2021 Paceline Pilot Training, Inc.

 

Choose a job you love, and you will never have to work a day in your life—Confucius

 

Home Page Photo Credit: Algkalv (talk) - Own work, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9925021