Flight Operations Safety Rules and Procedures

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Record of Amendments

January 28, 2021 Cannabis and Illegal Drug Consumption Policy rewritten for clarity.

May 20, 2020—COVID 19 provisions for training added.

July 1, 2020—CAR weather minimum table added.

November 15, 2020—Reference to "manufacturer" changed to "owner".


Requirements for Flight Preparation

Flight Briefing

Before each flight, student pilots shall contact the Kamloops Flight Information Centre at 1-866-992-7433 (WX BRIEF) and obtain a pilot briefing.  From this briefing, a student must determine forecast cloud layers, visibility, wind, temperature, turbulence, SIGMETS (Significant Weather Reports) and NOTAMs (Notice to Airmen) for the departure and destination airport, and the proposed training area or route.

Revision 20-1

Aircraft Journey Logbook Review

Prior to each training flight (dual or solo), student pilots shall examine the aircraft Journey Log  to ensure:​

  1. the date and/or air time of scheduled maintenance tasks for the aircraft have not been exceeded;

  2. they have knowledge of any current deferred aircraft defects.

Revision 20-1

Ramp Safety


Prior to conducting pre-flight servicing or inspection of training aircraft, student pilots shall ensure the aircraft ignition keys are visibly placed on the aircraft’s glare shield, thereby ensuring the magnetos are switched off.

Revision 20-1

Fuel and Oil

  1. Prior to each training flight (dual or solo), student pilots shall record the quantities of fuel and oil on board the aircraft at the time of takeoff in the Training Flight Authorization. The fuel must be specified in U.S. gallons and time (normal cruise fuel consumption); the oil must be specified in U.S. quarts. 

  2. For VFR training flights, fuel and oil must be sufficient for the intended flight, plus 60 minutes at normal fuel consumption.

  3. Oil shall be added when the indicated quantity is at or below the requirements published by the aircraft owner.

Revision 20-2

Weight and Balance Control

Prior to each flight student pilots shall calculate the proposed takeoff weight and Centre of Gravity (CofG), landing weight and CofG, and Zero-fuel CofG, of the training aircraft and record these in the Training Flight Authorization.

Revision 20-1

Flight Authorizaton


Prior to each training flight (dual or solo), the entry in the Training Flight Authorization shall be countersigned by a supervising instructor.

 Revision 20-1

Pre-boarding Inspection


Prior to boarding an aircraft for the purpose of conducting an engine start, student pilots and rental pilots will walkabout the aircraft to visually check the following: fuel cap security, fuel sump valve security (no leaks), tires and brakes (normal appearance, no hydraulic leaks), engine cowling latches (secure), and a last inspection for external airframe damage.


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Revision 20-1


Post-flight Requirements

Aircraft Security


At the termination of each flight, student pilots shall ensure their aircraft is properly positioned and secured so as to prevent collision or wind damage.  When a parked aircraft is not under constant and direct supervision by a Flight Instructor or Pilot-in-command, the aircraft must be secured in accordance with the aircraft owner.  In all cases, the control column of an unoccupied aircraft must be secured when the surface winds are in excess of 7 KTS. 

Revision 20-1

Aircraft Time Records


At the termination of each training flight, student pilots shall ensure the aircraft engine start-up, takeoff, landing, and engine shut-down times, are recorded in the Training Flight Authorization.

Revision 20-1

Weather Minima Requirements

Dual Flight Training

  1. All dual flights are governed by the weather minima specified in the Canadian Aviation Regulations (below). 

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  1. While active VFR flight training is prohibited when below the above weather minima, the Flight Instructor may operate with Special VFR authorization owing to localized phenomena during arrivals and departure.

Revision 20-2

Solo Flight Training

  1. The application of weather minima is based on the following forcast publications: circuit training is governed by the departure airport ATIS and the Abbotsford Terminal Aerodrome Forecast, non-circuit training is governed by the Abbotsford Terminal Aerodrome Forecast, and Cross-country flights are govened by the applicable Geographic Area Forecast.

  2. The following minimum apply to solo flights:

Solo Flight Weather Minima.jpg


See additional weather minima for dual and solo flights over and along the Strait of Georgiabelow.

Revision 20-1

Altitude Minima Requirements

Terrain Rules

  1. Unless otherwise indicated in this section, all training flights are governed by the altitude minima specified in the In CAR 602.14 and CAR 602.15 of the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

  2. Unless authorized by a supervising Flight Instructor, solo flights are prohibited below 500' AGL.

  3. The minimum ridge crossing altitude in a mountainous area is 500' AGL.

  4. The minimum altitude over water is sufficiently high to enable maximum distance glide to land with the aircraft propeller windmilling.

Revision 20-1

Maneuver Rules


  1. The minimum altitude for solo slow flight practice is 2500' AGL.

  2. The minimum entry altitude for solo stall practice is 3000' AGL and the minimum recovery altitude is 2000' AGL.

  3. The minimum entry altitude for spin practice in the Piper Cherokee 140 is 4000' AGL and the minimum recovery altitude is 3000' AGL; the minimum entry altitude for spin practice in the Cessna 152 and 172 is 5000' AGL and the minimum recovery altitude is 4000' AGL

Revision 20-1


Additional Requirements for Spin Training

  1. As part of the safety precautions taken immediately prior to entering a spin maneuver, the Pilot-in-command will physically ensure the seat harnesses are attached and secure.

  2. Solo spin training is prohibited for non-commercial pilot training.

  3. Solo spin training for commercial pilot training is prohibited unless specifically authorized by the supervising instructor.

  4. The maximum number of intentional spin rotations during spin training for non-flight instructor training is one 360°; the maximum number of intentional spin rotations during spin training for instructor rating training is two 360°.

  5. For two-rotation spins conducted during instructor rating training, the minimum entry altitude is 5000' AGL and the minimum recovery altitude is 3000' AGL.

Revision 20-1


Additional Requirements for Strait of Georgia Flights

  1. Dual or solo flight across or along the Strait of Georgia, the forecast weather minima is no cloud ceiling below 6,000’ ASL, no precipitation, and a minimum (15) miles visibility.

  2. Flight altitude over the Strait of Georgia must at all times be sufficiently high to enable maximum distance glide to land with the aircraft propeller windmilling.

  3. Belt-mounted life jackets must be worn by all persons on board single-engine aircraft during Strait of Georgia crossings.

Revision 20-1


Additional Requirements for IFR Flight Training

  1. For IFR training flights, fuel and oil must be sufficient for flight to the intended destination, and hence from the destination airport to the alternate airport, plus 45 minutes at normal fuel consumption.

  2. The weather minima for single-engine IFR flight training shall be sufficiently high so as to permit a successful forced approach during the course of flight, and at no time less than a 700’ ceiling AGL and three (3) miles visibility.  For multi-engine IFR flight training, the weather minimum shall be as published for IFR flight in the Canadian Aviation Regulations.

  3. IFR flight training at altitudes above the freezing level in Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC) is prohibited.

Revision 20-1


Additional Requirements for Multi-engine Flight Training

  1. Prior to pre-flight services or inspection, a visual inspection of the magneto switches shall be made to ensure they are switched off.

  2. It is prohibited to conduct a takeoff when Accelerate-Stop Distance exceeds Takeoff Run Available.

  3. A pre-takeoff briefing must be conducted or supervised by the Pilot-in-Command just prior to all departures which specifies:

    1. the target speeds, flap configuration, and gear retraction procedures to be used during the takeoff; and

    2. the actions that will be taken in the event of an engine failure on departure, with specific reference to Vmc and the anticipated landing area available.

  4. With respect to stall training, the aircraft must be at an operationally safe altitude so as to permit recovery at or above 3000’ AGL.

  5. It is prohibited to demonstrate Vmc below 4000’ AGL.

  6. All training involving actual engine shutdown must occur within 15 miles of the following airports: Abbotsford, Pitt Meadows, Boundary Bay, or Bellingham.  The conditions at the selected airport must be suitable for a landing in the event that the engine cannot be restarted.

Revision 20-1


Requirements for Collision Avoidance

  1. Prior to executing a turn during flight, students receiving dual instruction shall visually inspect vicinity airspace for traffic and call “clear left” in the case of left turns, or “clear right” in the case of right turns.

  2. During prolonged climbs or descents, and with due with ATC restrictions, students shall conduct periodic heading changes not less than 30° to visually inspect vicinity airspace for traffic.

  3. A clearing turn to inspect vicinity airspace for traffic shall be conducted prior to each stall, spin, and prior to slow flight manoeuvring.  This clearing turn must consist of a 180° turn, or two 90° turns in opposite directions, and shall be conducted immediately prior to conducting the manoeuvre.


Revision 20-1


General Requirements

Aircraft Defects and Unserviceabilities

All aircraft defects and unserviceabilities will be immediately reported to the supervising instructor and entered in the aircraft Journey Log.

Revision 20-1

Abnormal Occurrence

  1. For the purpose of safe flight operations, including the possible need for a safety inspection of aircraft, any of the following incidents shall be immediately reported to the supervising instructor:

  2. An accident where a person is hurt or incurred as a result of the operation of the aircraft;

  3. An accident where an aircraft is damaged or possibly damaged as a result of the operations of the aircraft or vehicle;

  4. An abnormal occurrence, including:

  • abnormally hard landings, nose-wheel landings, or landings involving tail strikes or excessive side-loading on the landing gear;

  • bird strikes or possible bird strikes;

  • collision or possible collision with any object during ground or flight operation;

  • flap deployment in excess of the limit speeds specified for the aircraft;

  • airspeed in excess of the maximum structural cruise speed;

  • the exceeding of any other aircraft limitation prescribed by the Pilot Operating Handbook;

  • non-compliance/possible non-compliance or confusion with an ATC clearance or instruction;

  • non-compliance or possible non-compliance with an airspace regulation;

  • violation or possible violation of a Canadian Aviation Regulation.

Students are reminded that incidents are reviewed for the purpose of assessing how the risk of re-occurrence can be minimized.  There is no intent to assess blame or fault.  Open communication of abnormal occurrence is crucial for effective flight safety. 

Revision 20-1

Practice Area

Except in an emergency, and unless otherwise specified by the Flight Instructor authorizing the flight, the practice areas for all Private Pilot and Recreational Pilot solo training flights must be recorded and authorized Flight Records and Authorization.

Revision 20-1

Crosswind Limit

For all Private Pilot and Recreational Pilot solo training flights, the maximum crosswind component for conducting takeoffs or landings is 10 knots.  For all other training flights, takeoffs are prohibited where the wind conditions exceed the maximum demonstrated crosswind component published in the Pilot Operating Handbook or placarded in the aircraft.

Revision 20-1

Temperature Limit

The minimum temperature for all training flights is -20° C.

Revision 20-1

Clearance Read-back Requirements


All runway clearances from a Tower Control Unit pertaining to lining up to wait for take off clearance, or a takeoff clearance, must be read back.

All altitude restrictions or departure or arrival procedure that includes an altitude restriction assigned by a Tower Control Unit must be read back.

Revision 20-1

Aircraft Lighting


The landing light of single-engine aircraft shall be turned on during all flights.

Revision 20-1

Wildlife Runway Restrictions
  1. Takeoffs or landings are prohibited when birds are situated on the runway surface.

  2. Takeoffs or landings are prohibited when coyotes are located within 500' of a runway surface.

Revision 20-1

Unscheduled or forced landing

In the case of an unscheduled or forced landing, the pilot-in-command (student pilot or instructor) must contact Flight Service, either by radio (121.5 MHz.) or by telephone (the Kamloops Flight Information Centre at 1-866-992-7433—WX BRIEF) and the supervising Flight Instructor.  Except in the case of an emergency, no attempt shall be made to take off after an unscheduled or forced landing without the approval of the supervising Flight Instructor.

Revision 20-1

Airport Restrictions


Except in emergencies, or with prior permission from the supervising Flight Instructor, landings are only permitted at airports certified by Transport Canada.

Revision 20-1

Cannabis and Illegal Drug Consumption Policy


Students engaged in flight training operations are prohibited from using Cannabis and Illegal Drugs at all times during their flight training.

 Revision 21-1

Violation Provision


Students in violation of the Canadian Aviation Regulations, Canadian laws regarding criminal or national security, or these Flight Operations Safety Rules and Procedures, are responsible for all damages and injury that result from such violation.

Revision 20-1

Training during the Covid 19 Pandemic

Preparatory Ground Instruction

In advance of each training flight, a ground briefing is completed to review what will be learned in the planned training flight.  Referred to as Preparatory Ground Instruction (PGI), these sessions typically last between 20 and 45 minutes and are actually one-on-one classroom instruction.  For the remainder of the active Covid period, all PGIs will be conducted via Zoom, so you will simply require access to video internet communication.  You will be sent a link for the meeting and joining will be automatic. 

Zoom will be the primary medium of training for Flight Instructor Students during their initial Preparatory Ground Instruction phase, which will cover approximately first 15 hours of the ground requirements for the Flight Instructor Rating.

Revision 20-1

Preflight and Post-flight Debriefings

Preflight and post-flight debriefings will be conducted on the ramp near the aircraft (weather permitted) or in a sheltered outdoor areas near the aircraft.  The preflight briefing occurs just before engine start for a training flight, and reviews the what, where, and how concerning the proposed air exercises.  The post-flight debriefing is a review of flight just completed, and reviews the good elements, the areas for improvement (and how to improve them), and the planned activity for the next flight (and direction on student preparation.  These briefings typically last 10 to 20 minutes.

Revision 20-1

Training Flights and Air Instruction

All touch-points inside the cockpit (including flight, radio, and avionics controls), and outside on the aircraft (contact points for refueling, adding oil, and the inspection of airframe items such as control surfaces, hatches, doors, engine compartment and landing gear, etc.) will be sterilized using a isopropanol solution.  This will occur before and after flights.  The sterilization procedures will be established for each aircraft prior to the first training flight.

Inside the cockpit and outside the cockpit where social distance cannot be maintained, the crew (instructor and student) will wear face masks.

Revision 21-1

Crew Temperature Checks

Crew temperatures will be taken and recorded prior to commencing in-person training.

Revision 20-1