PSTAR (Student Pilot Permit) Examination Preparation

 
Contents

Airports

 
Section 1 Collision Avoidance

The pilot-in-command of an aircraft that has the right of way shall, when there is a risk of collision, take whatever action is necessary to avoid a collision (CAR 602.19 [a]).

 

Where the pilot-in-command is aware that another aircraft is faced with an emergency, he or she should give way to the other aircraft (CAR 602.19 [b]).

 

Based on manoeuvrability, aircraft have priority of right of way in the following order: Fixed or free balloons, gliders, airships, and fixed or rotary wing aircraft (CAR 602.19 [2]).

 

Where the pilot-in-command is required to give way to another aircraft, he or she shall not pass over or under, or cross ahead of, the other aircraft, unless those action will not create a risk of collision (CAR 602.19 [4]).

 

When two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so, each shall alter course to the right (CAR 602.19 [5]).

 

When an aircraft is overtaking another—whether climbing, descending, or in level flight—the pilot-in-command of the overtaking aircraft shall alter the course to the right, and no subsequent change in the relative position of the two aircraft shall absolve this obligation of the pilot of overtaking aircraft until the aircraft is entirely passed or is clear of the other aircraft (CAR 602.19 [6]).

 

The pilot-in-command of an aircraft maneuvering on the ground, or in the air, shall give way to an aircraft that is landing or about to land (CAR 602.19 [7]).

 

The pilot-in-command of an aircraft approaching an airport for the purpose of landing shall give way to any aircraft at a lower altitude that is also approaching the airport for the purpose of landing (CAR 602.19 [8]); nevertheless, the pilot-in-command of the aircraft of the lower aircraft shall not overtake or cut in front of the higher aircraft that is in the final stages of an approach to land (CAR 602.19 [9]).

Study Questions

Section 2 Visual Signals

 

When NORDO flights are permitted, or in case of communication failures, ATC uses a light gun to communicate clearances, the interpretation of which is indicated in the table.

Light Signals.JPG

Light communications are acknowledged by the pilot by rocking the wings (day) or a single flash of the landing light (night).

Animal Conservation

Flight over fur and poultry farms should be avoid at altitudes below 2000' AGL, as crowded animals can display destructive behavour when frightened.  Fur farms may be marked with chrome yellow and black stripes painted on pylons or roofs—In addition, a red flag may be flown during whelping (birthing) season (AIM, RAC 1.11.1).

In the interest of wildlife, pilots must not fly at an altitude of less than 2 000 ft AGL when in the vicinity of animal herds  or above wildlife refuges/bird sanctuaries, depicted on affected aeronautical charts (AIM, RAC 1.11.2).

Study Questions

 

Section 3 Communications

The following study material is derived from the Study Guide for the Restricted Operator Certificate With Aeronautical Qualification (Issue 3, February 2010) published by Industry Canada, and available on the internet.

Single Station Call

When an operator wishes to establish communication with a specific station, the following items shall be transmitted in the order indicated:

  1. The call sign of the station called (not more than three times, once if radio conditions are good).

  2. The words "THIS IS".

  3. The call sign of the station calling (not more than three times, once if radio conditions are good).

  4. The frequency on which the calling station is transmitting.

  5. The invitation to reply ("OVER").

Example:

TORONTO TOWER (repeated up to three times)
THIS IS
CESSNA ONE EIGHT FIVE - FOXTROT ALPHA DELTA TANGO
ON FREQUENCY ONE ONE EIGHT DECIMAL SEVEN
OVER

Emergency Communications

In the aeronautical service, an emergency condition is classified in accordance with the degree of danger or hazard as follows:

Distress:  A condition of being threatened by grave and/or imminent danger and requiring immediate assistance

 

Urgency:  A condition concerning the safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of someone on board or within sight, but which does not require immediate assistance.

 

Distress communications should be conducted in accordance with the procedures outlined in this section. These procedures shall not, however, prevent a station in distress from making use of any means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain assistance.

The first transmission of the distress call and message by an aircraft should be made on the air-ground frequency in use at the time. If the aircraft is unable to establish communications on the frequency in use, the distress call and message should be repeated on the aeronautical emergency frequency (121.5 MHz), or any other frequency available, in an effort to establish communications with any aeronautical ground station or other aircraft station.

In radiotelephony, the spoken word for distress is "MAYDAY", and it should be used at the commencement of the first distress communication.

The distress signal indicates that a person or station sending the signal is:

  1. threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance; or

  2. aware that an aircraft, ship or other vehicle is threatened by grave and imminent danger and requires immediate assistance.

Distress Call

The distress call identifies the station in distress, and such calls shall be sent only on the authority of the person in command of the station. The distress call should comprise:

  1. the distress signal "MAYDAY" spoken three times;

  2. the words "THIS IS";

  3. the call sign of the aircraft in distress spoken three times.

 

Example:

MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY
THIS IS
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY CHARLIE CHARLIE
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY CHARLIE CHARLIE
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY CHARLIE CHARLIE

 

The distress call shall not be addressed to a particular station and acknowledgment of receipt shall not be given before the distress message is sent.

Distress Message

The distress message shall follow the distress call as soon as possible.

The distress message should include as many as possible of the following elements spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order:

  1. the distress signal "MAYDAY";

  2. the call sign of the station in distress (once);

  3. the nature of the distress condition and kind of assistance required (i.e. what has happened);

  4. the intentions of the person in command;

  5. the particulars of its position (airspeed, altitude, heading);

  6. the number of persons on board and injuries (if applicable);

  7. any other information that may facilitate rescue;

  8. the call sign of the station in distress.

 

Example:

MAYDAY
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBEC
STRUCK BY LIGHTNING
DITCHING AIRCRAFT
POSITION: 20 MILES EAST OF WINNIPEG
ALTITUDE: 1500 FEET
AIRSPEED: 125 KNOTS
HEADING: 270 DEGREES
ONE PERSON ON BOARD
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBEC

 

Note: If the aircraft can transmit the distress message immediately after the distress call, then items 1 and 2 may be omitted from the message.

Action by Other Stations Hearing a Distress Message

  1. Continue to monitor the frequency on which the distress message was received and, if possible, establish a continuous watch on appropriate distress and emergency frequencies.

  2. Notify any station with direction-finding or radar facilities and request assistance, unless it is known that this action has been, or will be, taken by the station acknowledging receipt of the distress message.

  3. Cease all transmissions that may interfere with the distress traffic.

Imposition of Silence

The station in distress, or the station in control of distress traffic, may impose silence on all stations in the area or on any station that interferes with the distress traffic. It shall address these instructions to "all stations", or to one station only as appropriate.

The station in distress, or the station in control, shall use the expression "SEELONCE MAYDAY".

If it is believed to be essential, other stations near the station in distress may also impose silence during a distress situation by use the international expression "SEELONCE DISTRESS".

Should radio silence be imposed during a distress situation, all transmissions shall cease immediately except from those stations involved in distress traffic.

Example:

Imposition of silence on a specific station by the station in distress. (Cessna C-FNJI is causing interference to distress traffic.)

CESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIETT INDIA
THIS IS
PIPER FOXTROT X-RAY QUEBEC QUEBEC
SEELONCE MAYDAY
OUT

Imposition of silence on all stations by a station other than the station in distress.

ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
CESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIETT INDIA
SEELONCE DISTRESS
OUT

Urgency Message

The urgency signal shall be followed by a message giving further information about the incident that necessitated the use of the urgency signal.

When the urgency message is not addressed to a specific station (i.e. all stations) and is acknowledged by another aircraft or aeronautical ground station, the acknowledging station shall forward the urgency information to the appropriate authorities (i.e. air traffic service unit, airport operating agency or its representative).

The urgency message should contain as many of the following elements as required, spoken distinctly and, if possible, in the following order:

  1. the urgency signal "PAN PAN" (three times);

  2. the name of the station addressed or the words "ALL STATIONS" (three times);

  3. the words "THIS IS";

  4. the identification of the aircraft;

  5. the nature of the urgency condition;

  6. the intentions of the person in command;

  7. the present position, flight level or altitude and the heading;

  8. any other useful information.

 

Example:

PAN PAN, PAN PAN, PAN PAN
ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS, ALL STATIONS
THIS IS
CESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIETT INDIA
LOST, REQUEST RADAR CHECK
POSITION: UNKNOWN
AIRSPEED: 112 KNOTS
ALTITUDE: 1050 FEET
CESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIETT INDIA
OVER

 

Example of reply:

PAN PAN
CESSNA FOXTROT NOVEMBER JULIETT INDIA
THIS IS WINNIPEG TOWER
YOUR POSITION IS 20 MILES SOUTH OF WINNIPEG
WINNIPEG TOWER
STANDING BY

 

 

Normal Radio Communication Procedures
The following study material is derived from the Transport Canada Aeronautical Information Manual   published by Transport Canada, and available on the internet.
 

Call Signs—Civil Aircraft

In radio communications, always use phonetics if the call sign consists of the aircraft’s registration.

 

Initial contact—Use the manufacturer’s name or the type of aircraft, followed by the last four characters of the registration.

Examples:

Cessna GADT: CESSNA GOLF ALPHA DELTA TANGO

Aztec FADT: AZTEC FOXTROT ALPHA DELTA TANGO

 

Subsequent communications be abbreviated to the last three characters of the registration, as long as this abbreviation is initiated by ATS.

 

Examples:

 

Cessna GADT becomes   ALPHA DELTA TANGO

Aztec FADT becomes  ALPHA DELTA TANGO

Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

ATIS is the continuous broadcasting of recorded information for arriving and departing aircraft on a discrete VHF/UHF frequency. Its purpose is to improve controller and flight service specialist effectiveness and to relieve frequency congestion by automating the repetitive transmission of essential but routine information.

Pilots hearing the broadcast should inform the ATC/FSS unit on initial contact that they have received the information, by repeating the code letter that identifies the message, thus obviating the need for the controller/specialist to issue information.

 

Example:

 

. . . WITH BRAVO

Frequency Monitoring

Pilots operating VFR en route in uncontrolled airspace when not communicating on an MF, or an ATF, or VFR on an airway should continuously monitor 126.7 MHz and whenever practicable, broadcast their identification, position, altitude and intentions on this frequency to alert other VFR or IFR aircraft that may be in the vicinity.

To achieve the greatest degree of safety, it is essential that all radio-equipped aircraft monitor a common designated frequency, such as the published MF or ATF, and follow the reporting procedures specified for use in an MF area, while operating on the manoeuvring area or flying within an MF area surrounding an uncontrolled aerodrome.

 

MF area means an area in the vicinity of an uncontrolled aerodrome for which an MF has been designated. The area within which MF procedures apply at a particular aerodrome is defined in the Aerodrome/Facility Directory Section of the Canada Flight Supplement, under the heading COMM. Normally, the MF area is a circle with a 5-NM radius capped at 3 000 ft AAE.

 

At uncontrolled aerodromes without a published MF or ATF, the common frequency for the broadcast of aircraft position and the intentions of pilots flying in the vicinity of that aerodrome is 123.2 MHz.

Emergency Frequency 121.5 MHz

Pilots should continuously monitor 121.5 MHz when operating within sparsely settled areas or when operating a Canadian aircraft over water more than 50 NM from shore unless:

  1. essential cockpit duties or aircraft electronic equipment limitations do not permit simultaneous monitoring of two VHF frequencies;

  2. or the pilot is using other VHF frequencies.

Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Communication Procedures at Uncontrolled Aerodromes

The following reporting procedures shall be followed by the pilot-in-command of radio-equipped aircraft at uncontrolled aerodromes within an MF area and should also be followed by the pilot-in-command at aerodromes with an ATF:

 
Listening Watch and Local Flying [CAR 602.97 (2)]

Maintain a listening watch on the mandatory frequency specified for use in the MF area. This should apply to ATF areas as well.

 

Before Taxiing on a Manoeuvring Area [(CAR 602.99)]

Report the pilot-in-command’s intentions before entering the manoeuvring area.

 

Departure (CAR 602.100)

  1. Before moving onto the take-off surface, report the pilot-in-command’s departure intentions on the MF or ATF frequency. If a delay is encountered, broadcast intentions and expected length of delay, then rebroadcast departure intentions prior to moving onto the take-off surface; (B)

  2. Before takeoff, ascertain by radio on the MF or ATF frequency and by visual observation that there is no likelihood of collision with another aircraft or a vehicle during takeoff; and, (C)

  3. After takeoff, report departing from the aerodrome traffic circuit, and maintain a listening watch on the MF or ATF frequency until clear of the area.

 

Arrival (CAR 602.101)

  1. Report before entering the MF area and, where circumstances permit, shall do so at least five minutes before entering the area, giving the aircraft’s position, altitude and estimated time of landing and the pilot-in-command’s arrival procedure intentions.

  2. Report when joining the aerodrome traffic circuit, giving the aircraft’s position in the circuit.

  3. Report when on downwind leg, if applicable.

  4. Report when on final approach.

  5. Report when clear of the surface on which the aircraft has landed.

 

Continuous Circuits (CAR 602.102)

Report when joining the downwind leg of the circuit.

Report when on final approach; stating the pilot-in-command’s intentions.

Report when clear of the surface on which the aircraft has landed.

 

Flying Through an MF or ATF Area (CAR 602.103)

  1. Report before entering the MF or ATF area and, where circumstances permit, shall do so at least five minutes before entering the area, giving the aircraft’s position and altitude and the pilot-in-command’s intentions.

  2. Report when clear of the MF or ATF area.

Taxi and Hold-short Clearances

Upon receipt of a normal taxi authorization, a pilot is expected to proceed to the taxi-holding position for the runway assigned for takeoff. If a pilot is required to cross any runway while taxiing towards the departure runway, the ground or airport controller will issue a specific instruction to cross or hold short. If a specific authorization to cross was not received, pilots should hold short and request authorization to cross the runway. Pilots may be instructed to monitor the tower frequency while taxiing or until a specific point, or they may be advised to “contact tower holding short.” The term “holding short,” when used during the communications transfer, is considered as a location and does not require a readback.

To emphasize the protection of active runways and to enhance the prevention of runway incursions, ATC is required to obtain a readback of runway “hold” instructions. As a good operating practice, taxi authorizations that contain the instructions “hold” or “hold short” should be acknowledged by the pilot by providing a readback or repeating the hold point.

 

Examples of “hold” instructions that should be read back:

  1. HOLD or HOLD ON (runway number or taxiway);

  2. HOLD (direction) OF (runway number);

  3. or HOLD SHORT OF (runway number, or taxiway).

 

Reminder: In order to reduce frequency congestion, readback of ATC taxi instructions, other than those listed above, is not required in accordance with CAR 602.31(1)(a); such instructions are simply acknowledged. With the increased simultaneous use of more than one runway, however, instructions to enter, cross, backtrack or line up on any runway should also, as a good operating practice, be acknowledged by a readback.

Takeoff Clearances

To expedite movement of airport traffic and achieve spacing between arriving and departing aircraft, take-off clearance may include the word “immediate.” In such cases, “immediate” is used for the purpose of air traffic separation.  On acceptance of the clearance, the aircraft shall taxi onto the runway and take off in one continuous movement. If, in the pilot’s opinion, compliance would adversely affect their operations, the pilot should refuse the clearance.

 

Pilots planning a static takeoff (i.e. a full stop after “lined up” on the runway), or a delay in takeoff, should indicate this when requesting take-off clearance

Traffic Information

Traffic (or workload) permitting, ATC will provide IFR and CVFR flights with information on observed radar targets whenever the traffic is likely to be of concern to the pilot, unless the pilot states that the information is not wanted.

 

When issuing radar information, ATS units will frequently define the relative location of the traffic, weather areas, etc., by referring to the clock position. In this system, the 12 o’clock position is based on the observed radar track rather than the actual nose of the aircraft.

 

In conditions of strong crosswind, this can lead to a discrepancy between the position as reported by the controller and the position as observed by the pilot. The following diagram (AIM RAC 1.5.3) illustrates the clock positions.

Traffic Posititon Communication.JPG

 

The issue of traffic information to radar-identified aircraft is provided using the following format:

 

  1. Position of the traffic in relation to the aircraft’s observed track.

  2. Direction of flight.

  3. Type of aircraft, if known, or the relative speed and the altitude, if known.

 

 NOTE: Direction of flight may be expressed as OPPOSITE DIRECTION or SAME DIRECTION, while the altitude may be expressed as a number of feet above or below the aircraft receiving the traffic information.

 

Example: 

TRAFFIC, TWO O’CLOCK, THREE AND A HALF MILES, WESTBOUND, B747, ONE THOUSAND FEET ABOVE YOUR ALTITUDE.

 

Issue traffic information to non-radar-identified aircraft as follows:

 

  1. Position of the traffic in relation to a fix.

  2. Direction of flight.

  3. Type of aircraft, if known, or the relative speed and the altitude, if known.